Monday, June 25, 2012

Joseph Joachim Raff

Joseph Joachim Raff (1822-1882), German composer and orchestral conductor, was born near Zurich, Switzerland, on the 27th of May 1822, and educated chiefly at Schwyz. Here, under the care of the Jesuit fathers, he soon became an excellent classical and mathematical scholar, but received scarcely any instruction in his favourite art of music, in which, nevertheless, he made extraordinary progress through sheer force of natural genius, developed by persevering study which no external obstacles could induce him to discontinue. So successful were his unaided efforts that, when in 1843 he sent some MSS. to Mendelssohn, that warm encourager of youthful talent felt justified in at once recommending him to Breitkopf & Hartel, the Leipzig publishers, who brought out a large selection of his early works. Soon after this he became acquainted with Liszt, who gave him much generous encouragement. He first became personally acquainted with Mendelssohn at Cologne in 1846, and gave up all his other engagements for the purpose of following him to Leipzig, but his intention was frustrated by the great composer's death in 1847. After this disappointment he remained for some time at Cologne, where his attention was alternately devoted to composition and to the preparation of critiques for the periodical Cdcilia. Thus far he was a selftaught artist; but he felt the need of systematic instruction so deeply that, retiring for a time from public life, he entered at Stuttgart upon a long course of severe and uninterrupted study, and with so much success that in 1850 he appeared before the world in the character of an accomplished and highly cultivated musician. Raff now settled for a time in Weimar in order to be near Liszt. Hans von Billow had already brought him into notice by playing his Concertstiick for pianoforte and orchestra in public, and the favour with which this fine work was everywhere received encouraged him to attempt a greater one. During his stay in Stuttgart he had begun the composition of an opera entitled Konig Alfred, and had good hope of securing its performance at Dresden; but the political troubles with which Germany was then overwhelmed rendered its production in the Saxon capital impossible. At Weimar he was more fortunate. In due time Kanig Alfred was produced there under Liszt's able direction at the court theatre with complete success; and later, in 1870, he wrote his second opera, Dame Kobold, for performance at the same theatre. A third opera, Samson, remained unstaged.

Raff lived at Weimar until 1856, when he obtained a large clientele at Wiesbaden as a teacher of the pianoforte. In 18J9 he married Doris Genast, an actress of high repute, and thenceforward devoted himself with renewed energy to the work of composition, displaying an inexhaustible fertility of invention tempered by great technical skill. He resided chiefly at Wiesbaden till 1877, when he was appointed director of the HochConservatorium at Frankfort, an office which he retained until his death on the 25th of June 1882.

More than 200 of Raff's compositions have been published, including ten symphonies - undoubtedly his finest works - quartets, concertos, sonatas, songs, and examples of nearly every known variety of style; yet he never repeats himself. Notwithstanding his strong love for the romantic school, he is never guilty of extravagance, and, if in his minor works he is sometimes a little commonplace, he never descends to vulgarity. His symphonies Lenore and Im
Walde are wonderful examples of musical painting.

Symphony No. 1 in D major, Op. 96 "An das Vaterland"
Symphony No. 2 in C major, Op. 140
Symphony No. 3 in F major, Op. 153 "Im Walde"
Symphony No. 4 in G minor, Op. 167
Symphony No. 5 in E major, Op. 177 "Lenore"
Symphony No. 6 in D minor, Op. 189 "Gelebt, Gestrebt, Gelitten, Gestritten, Gestorben, Umworben"
Symphony No. 7 in B flat major, Op. 201 "In den Alpen"
Symphony No. 8 in A major, Op. 205 "Frühlingsklänge"
Symphony No. 9 in E minor, Op. 208 "Im Sommer"
Symphony No. 10 in F minor, Op. 213 "Zur Herbstzeit"
Symphony No. 11 in A minor, Op. 214 "Der Winter"

Other orchestral works
Konzertstuk "Ode au printemps" in G major, for piano and orchestra, Op. 76
Orchestral pieces, Op. 85
Suite for Orchestra No. 1, Op. 101
Jubel overture, Op. 103
Fest overture, Op. 117
Concert overture, Op. 123
Overture, Op. 127
Rhapsody for Orchestra "Abends", Op. 136b
Sinfonietta, Op. 188
Suite for Orchestra No. 2 "In ungarischer Weise", Op. 194
Suite for Piano and Orchestra in E-flat, Op. 200
Elegy for Orchestra, WoO48
Italian Suite for Orchestra
Suite for Orchestra "Aus Thüringen"
Overture to "Benedetto Marcello"
Overture to "La Parole"
Overture to "Dame Kobold"
Piano Concerto in C minor, Op. 185 (Allegro; Andante; Finale: Allegro)
Orchestration of Bach's Chaconne from Violin Partita No. 2

Chamber Music
String Quartet No.1, Op.77
String Quartet No.2, Op.90
Piano Trio No.1, Op.102
Piano Quintet, Op.107
Piano Trio No.2, Op.112
String Quartet No.3, Op.135
String Quartet No.4, Op.136
String Quartet No.5, Op.137
Piano Trio No.3, Op.155
Piano Trio No.4, Op.158
String Octet, Op.176
String Sextet, Op.178
Sinfonietta for 10 Wind Instruments, Op. 188 (2fl,2ob,2cl,2bn,2hn)
String Quartet No.6, Op.192 No.1 "Suite in Ancient Style"
String Quartet No.7, Op.192 No.2 "The Maid of the Mill" [Die Schŏne Mŭllerin]
String Quartet No.8, Op.192 No.3 "Suite in Canon Form"
Piano Quartet No.1, Op.202 No.1
Piano Quartet No.2, Op.202 No.2

from 1911 Encyclopedia

Saturday, June 23, 2012

List of Beatles Songs

Across The Universe
Act Naturally
Ain't She Sweet
All I've Got To Do
All My Loving
All Together Now
All You Need Is Love
And I Love Her
And Your Bird Can Sing
Anna (Go To Him)
Another Girl
Any Time At All
Ask Me Why

Baby It's You
Baby, You're A Rich Man
Baby's In Black
Back In The U.S.S.R.
Bad Boy
The Ballad Of John And Yoko
Being For The Benefit Of Mr. Kite!
Besame Mucho
Blue Jay Way

Can't Buy Me Love
Carry That Weight
Christmas Time (Is Here Again)
Come Together
The Continuing Story Of Bungalow Bill
Cry Baby Cry
Cry For A Shadow
Crying, Waiting, Hoping

A Day In The Life
Day Tripper
Dear Prudence
Devil In Her Heart
Dig It
Dizzy Miss Lizzy
Do You Want To Know A Secret
Doctor Robert
Don't Bother Me
Don't Ever Change
Don't Let Me Down
Don't Pass Me By
Drive My Car

Eight Days A Week
Eleanor Rigby
The End
Every Little Thing
Everybody's Got Something To Hide Except Me And My Monkey

Fixing A Hole
The Fool On The Hill
For No One
For You Blue
Free As A Bird
From Me To You
From Us To You

Get Back
Getting Better
Glad All Over
Glass Onion
Golden Slumbers
Good Day Sunshine
Good Morning, Good Morning
Good Night
Got To Get You Into My Life

Hallelujah, I Love Her So
Happiness Is A Warm Gun
A Hard Day's Night
Hello Goodbye
Hello Little Girl
Helter Skelter
Her Majesty
Here Comes The Sun
Here, There And Everywhere
Hey Bulldog
Hey Jude
The Hippy Hippy Shake
Hold Me Tight
Honey Don't
Honey Pie
The Honeymoon Song
How Do You Do It

I Am The Walrus
I Call Your Name
I Don't Want To Spoil The Party
I Feel Fine
I Forgot To Remember To Forget
I Got A Woman
I Got To Find My Baby
I Just Don't Understand
I Me Mine
I Need You
I Saw Her Standing There
I Should Have Known Better
I Wanna Be Your Man
I Want To Hold Your Hand
I Want To Tell You
I Want You (She's So Heavy)
I Will
If I Fell
If I Needed Someone
I'll Be Back
I'll Be On My Way
I'll Cry Instead
I'll Follow The Sun
I'll Get You
I'm A Loser
I'm Down
I'm Gonna Sit Right Down And Cry (Over You)
I'm Happy Just To Dance With You
I'm Looking Through You
I'm Only Sleeping
I'm So Tired
I'm My Life
In Spite Of All The Danger
The Inner Light
It Won't Be Long
It's All Too Much
It's Only Love
I've Got A Feeling
I've Just Seen A Face

Johnny B. Goode

Kansas City/Hey-Hey-Hey-Hey!
Keep Your Hands Off My Baby
Komm, Gib Mir Deine Hand

Lady Madonna
Leave My Kitten Alone
Lend Me Your Comb
Let It Be
Like Dreamers Do
Little Child
A Little Rhythm
Lonesome Tears In My Eyes
The Long And Winding Road
Long, Long, Long
Long Tall Sally
Love Me Do
Love You To
Lovely Rita
Lucy In The Sky With Diamonds

Maggie Mae
Magical Mystery Tour
Martha My Dear
Maxwell's Silver Hammer
Mean Mr. Mustard
Memphis, Tennessee
Money (That' What I Want)
Moonlight Bay
Mother Nature's Son
Mr. Moonlight
My Bonnie [Sung by Tony Sheridan]

The Night Before
No Reply
Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown)
Not A Second Time
Nothin' Shakin'
Nowhere Man

Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da
Octopus's Garden
Oh! Darling
Old Brown Shoe
One After 909
Only A Northern Song
Ooh! My Soul

Paperback Writer
Penny Lane
Please Mister Postman
Please Please Me
Polythene Pam
P.S. I Love You

Real Love
Revolution 1
Revolution 9
Rock And Roll Music
Rocky Raccoon
Roll Over Beethoven
Run For Your Life

Savoy Truffle
Sexy Sadie
Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band
Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (Reprise)
She Came In Through The Bathroom Window
She Loves You
She Said She Said
The Sheik Of Araby
She's A Woman
She's Leaving Home
A Shot Of Rhythm And Blues
Sie Liebt Dich
Slow Down
So How Come (No One Loves Me)
Soldier Of Love
Some Other Guy
Strawberry Fields Forever
Sun King
Sweet Little Sixteen

A Taste Of Honey
Tell Me What You See
Tell Me Why
Thank You Girl
That'll Be The Day
That's All Right (Mama)
There's A Place
Things We Said Today
Think For Yourself
This Boy
Three Cool Cats
Ticket To Ride
Till There Was You
To Know Her Is To Love Her
Tomorrow Never Knows
Too Much Monkey Business
Twist And Shout
Two Of Us

We Can Work It Out
What Goes On
What You're Doing
When I Get Home
When I'm Sixty Four
While My Guitar Gently Weeps
Why Don't We Do It In The Road
Wild Honey Pie
With A Little Help From My Friends
Within You Without You
The Word
Words Of Love

Yellow Submarine
Yer Blues
Yes It Is
You Can't Do That
You Know My Name (Look Up The Number)
You Know What To Do
You Like Me Too Much
You Never Give Me Your Money
You Really Got A Hold On Me
You Won't See Me
You'll Be Mine
Young Blood
Your Mother Should Know
You're Going To Lose That Girl
You've Got To Hide Your Love Away

Wednesday, June 20, 2012

Jacques Offenbach

Jacques Offenbach's real name was Jakob Wiener. He was born at Cologne, Germany in 1819, and died in Paris in 1880, aged sixty-one. He was the son of a Jewish cantor. Offenbach moved to Paris in 1833 to study the cello. He earned his living playing cello in the orchestra of the Opera Comique. In 1850 he became conductor of the Theatre Francais. Gradually, he became known to the public as a composer of light and humorous operettas.

He founded a theatrical company in 1855, the Bouffes-Parisiens, which staged many of his operettas, and he managed the company for many years. He became a French citizen in 1860. In 1876, he toured the United States. He also toured Britain, and his many works had great popularity everywhere.

Offenbach completed more than ninety works for the stage. His first success was Orpheus in the Underworld (1858). His most popular compositions appeared in the 1860's, notably La Belle Helene (1864), La Vie Parisienne (1866), La Grande-duchesse de Gerolstein (1867) and La Perichole (1868). Offenbach's last work was The Tales of Hoffmann. The production of this work was in preparation when he died - three months too early to witness its reception, an experience to which he had greatly looked forward.


Tuesday, June 19, 2012

Heinrich Schenker

Heinrich Schenker, a music theorist, was born June 19, 1868 in Wisniowczyk, Galicia, Russia, and died Jan. 14, 1935 in Vienna. Schenker studied law and composition in Vienna before settling there as a private teacher and occasional performer.

He proposed that Jean-Philippe Rameau's harmonic theory had erred in making harmony fundamental at the expense of counterpoint. His own study of C.P.E. Bach led him to posit counterpoint as equally fundamental and to recognize the subtle integration of the two.

Schenker's most influential perception was that tonal music consists of layers of ornamentation of simpler musical statements. His controversial theories and graphic notation presented in texts such as Harmony (1906), Counterpoint (1910), and Free Composition (1935)were widely disseminated in the 1970s and by the end of the 20th century had become the basis of the most widely employed analytical techniques for tonal music.

Samples of Schenker's theory:

In Schenkerian theory a diminution, or "division", rather than a diminishing is an expansion, "the process by which an interval formed by notes of longer value is expressed in notes of smaller value." Those notes of smaller value represent the notes of longer value, and thus the latter need not be present.

Schenkerian theory views the I - V - I motion in the lower voice of the Ursatz as an arpeggiation of the root and fifth of the tonic triad, and the I-IV-V-I progression is suitable for a background structure, but the IV is derived as prolongation of the bass arpeggiation I-V. The IV is an incomplete neighbor to the V in the bass.

Monday, June 18, 2012

Arthur Willard Pryor

Arthur Willard Pryor (1870-1942),was an American trombonist, bandleader and composer of popular music. The son the town bandmaster of St. Joseph, Missouri, he showed early musical talents in mastering the cornet, alto horn, valve trombone, drums, violin, bass viol and piano. He absorbed the prevalent fashion for the early ragtime music being in the close proximity of the likes of Scott Joplin, James Sylvester Scott and Percy Wenrich.

Pryor's dazzling career as a trombonist was initiated by being given a dilapidated slide trombone by his father, Samuel who accepted it as a debt repayment. This instrument was virtually unknown in the United States at that time so consequently the 15-year old Arthur Pryor was obliged to teach himself. In so doing after much diligent practice he mastered the slide trombone horn using only the top one-third length of the slide. It was some five years later that he learned from a casual acquaintance that the complete length of the slide could be used. Due to this unconventional self-tuition whereby he innovated his alternate positions in addition to the standard seven positions he was able to achieve fantastic speed and fluidity on his instrument becoming renowned as"the Boy Wonder of Missouri."

After touring with the great cornet soloist and bandmaster Allessandro Liberati (1847-1927) he was eventually invited to join John Philip Sousa in his newly-formed concert band in 1892. In his 11-year career with the Sousa Band he rapidly advanced from first trombonist, to lead soloist and then to assistant conductor in 1895. It was in this position that he started composing cakewalk successes such as successes Southern Hospitality (1899), and A Coon Band Contest (1899).In 1903 he resigned from Sousa's band to enter into business for himself as a composer/bandmaster and pioneer in the fledgling music recording industry at the Victor Talking Machine Company.

The years at the company were the most fertile period for as a composer. Of his three-hundred original works, the most famous were created during this time including: On Jersey Shore (1904), Whistler and His Dog (1905), Triumph of Old Glory (1907) and Heart of America March (1916).

Arthur Pryor eventually became so well known (and financially secure) in the early music recording industry that he no longer needed to give live concerts. He was one of the first to whom recording had become more important than the giving of live performances. His Arthur Pryor Band and Pryor's Concert Band and Orchestra became household names between the 1920's and 1930's and he retired a wealthy man in 1933.